The official name is the “Arab Republic of Egypt”, the Arabic name is
“MISR”, the capital is ” CAIRO”, The official religion is ” Islam”, the official language is ” Arabic “.
The ancient Egyptian name was ” KMT ” its mean, black soils, and also ” Deshret” the red land, but the name Egypt is derived from the Greek name ” Aígyptos “.
Egypt is bordered by Libya to the west, Sudan to the south, and Palestine to the east.
History of Egypt:
In El Faiyum c. 4400 BC has been found the oldest-known domesticated cattle remains in Africa.
Geological evidence and computer climate modeling studies suggest that natural climate changes around the 8th millennium began to desiccate the extensive pastoral lands of North Africa, eventually forming the Sahara by the 25th century BC.
From about 6000 BC various communities of hunter-gatherers make the Nile the center of their territory, around which they roam.
But the drying of the Saharaincreasingly confines them to the river area.
The unusual habit of this great river – flooding every year and depositing a layer of rich moist soil on the surrounding region – is ideally suited to the development of settled agriculture.
The river takes upon itself two otherwise laborious tasks, irrigation and the enriching of the soil.
3100 B.C the king Narmer succeeded to unite Egypt and mixed the 2 Crowns to be one crown the “Double Crown” and he became the first ruler of Upper and Lawer Egypt.
The Old Kingdom: 2580-2130 BC
This period is known as pyramids period, or the “Age of the Pyramids”.
The first king built a pyramid he was Zoser, he built his Step pyramid in Saqqara to be the first pyramid ever built in ancient Egypt.
later the other kings built pyramids, like Senfru in Dahshur Cheops, Chephren, and Menkaure in Giza, Unas, and Titi… etc.
First Intermediate Period:
After the fall of the Old Kingdom came a roughly 200-year stretch of time known as the First Intermediate Period, which is generally thought to include a relatively obscure set of pharaohs running from the end of the Sixth to the Tenth and most of the Eleventh Dynasties.
It is also highly likely that it was during this period that all of the pyramid and tomb complexes were robbed. Further lamentation texts allude to this fact, and by the beginning of the Middle Kingdom mummies are found decorated with magical spells that were once exclusive to the pyramid of the kings of the Sixth Dynasty.
The Middle Kingdom: 2000-1630 BC
The Middle Kingdom, spanning the 11th and 12th dynasties.
The period comprises two phases, the Eleventh Dynasty, which ruled from Thebes, and then the Twelfth Dynasty, whose capital was Lisht.
These two dynasties were originally considered the full extent of this unified kingdom, but some historians now consider the first part of the Thirteenth Dynasty to belong to the Middle Kingdom.
Second Intermediate Period and the Hyksos:
The Second Intermediate Period marks a period when Egypt once again fell into disarray between the end of the Middle Kingdom and the start of the New Kingdom.
This period is best known as the time the Hyksos made their appearance in Egypt, the reigns of its kings comprising the Fifteenth Dynasty.
The New Kingdom:
Contains the 18th,19th and 20th dynasty, this was a time of great wealth and power for Egypt.
contained some of Egypt’s most famous Pharaohs, including Ahmose I, Hatshepsut, Thutmose III, Amenhotep III, Akhenaten, Tutankhamun, Queen Hatshepsut, Ramses II and III…etc
between 525 BC to 404 BC
The last pharaoh of the 26th Dynasty, Psamtik III, was defeated by Cambyses II at the battle of Pelusium in the eastern Nile delta in May of 525 BC.
Cambyses has crowned Pharaoh of Egypt in the summer of that year at the latest, beginning the first period of Persian rule over Egypt (known as the 27th Dynasty).
Alexnder the great:
He occupied Egypt 332 B .C, He was welcomed by the Egyptians as a deliverer.
He visited Memphis and went on a pilgrimage to the oracle of Amun at the Oasis of Siwa. The oracle declared him the son of Amun.
Their rule about 275 years, from 305 to 30 BC.
Ptolemy, one of the seven bodyguards who served as Alexander the Great’s generals, was appointed satrap of Egypt after Alexander’s death in 323 BC.
In 305 BC, he declared himself Ptolemy I.
The Egyptians soon accepted the Ptolemies as the successors to the pharaohs of independent Egypt. Ptolemy’s family ruled Egypt until the Roman conquest of 30 BC.
The most famous member of the line was the last queen, Cleopatra VII, known for her role in the Roman political battles between Julius Caesar and Pompey, and later between Octavian and Mark Antony.
Her apparent suicide at the conquest by Rome marked the end of the Ptolemaic rule in Egypt.
Romans period: 31 B.C
in 30 BC after Octavian defeated his rival Mark Antony, deposed Pharaoh Cleopatra, and annexed the Ptolemaic Kingdom to the Roman Empire.
Egypt came to serve as a major producer of grain for the empire and had a highly developed urban economy.
Islamic – Arab period: 641 AD
Amr ibn al-‘As left for Egypt with a force of 4,000 troops, The Arab soldiers were also joined by some Roman and Persian converts to Islam.
Omar, the Muslim caliph, ordered Amr to move to Egypt with his troops, Finally.
He succeeded to control in Egypt and overthrow the Romans regime and started a new period in Egyptian history.